Note new research published on-line April 1, 2006 by Analytical Chemistry, a peer-reviewed
chemistry journal. Although not available in the published journal until May 1st, 2006, the research titled "Total Platinum
Concentration and Platinum Oxidation States in Body Fluids, Tissue, and Explants from Women Exposed to Silicone and Saline
Breast Implants by IC-ICP-MS" may be read on-line (see atachment).
A summary of the research is provided by Chemical Associated Neurological Disorders (CANDO)
Women exposed to silicone breast implants have platinum levels that exceed that of the general
population, and the oxidation states of the platinum indicate that the exposure may be toxic.
Ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) was used to determine
the total platinum concentration and platinum oxidation states in samples from women exposed to silicone and saline breast
implants. Samples included: whole blood, urine, hair, nails, sweat, brain tissue, breast milk, and explants.
Platinum in nine explanted silicone gel breast implants were mainly in the +2, +4, and +6 oxidation
states. Platinum in seven whole blood and six breast milk samples from women implanted with silicone breast implants
occurred mainly in the +2 and +4 oxidation states. In contrast, the fluid from the two saline breast explants did not
contain detectable levels of platinum.
This peer-reviewed published study is the first to document the various platinum oxidation
states in samples from women exposed to silicone breast implants. Positive oxidation states indicate risk.
A complex platinum salt, hexachloroplatinate, has been used in silicone gel-filled breast implants
as A catalyst in both the gel and envelope. Platinum salt exposure has been associated with a range of problems,
from positive skin-patch tests (indicating an allergic reaction) and contact dermatitis, to more serious problems such as
asthma, immunogenicity, inhibitory effects on brain enzymes (brain damage), neurotoxicity (nerve damage), mutagenicity, carcinogenicity,
and allergic anaphylactic reactions.
Recent studies have shown that there are significant amount of platinum in silicone breast
implant gel and envelopes. Platinum has been shown to leak out and accumulate in the scar tissue and fat tissue
of women exposed to silicone breast implants.
Platinum in compounds that occur in oxidation states other than zero (0) may be harmful to
human health. In the compound hexachloroplatinate, the oxidation state of platinum is +4. No previous study ever
published actually analyzed a breast implant or explant for the various forms of platinum.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The average amount of time the implants were in the women's bodies was approximately fourteen
years. The average number of years the women were explanted before the analyses were conducted was six
The surgically explanted silicone implants in the study were all 2nd generation implants, from
the 1970's through 1988, except for one more recent 3rd generation "low-bleed" silicone gel breast explant.
Questionnaires were completed to provide information regarding whether the women had been treated
with platinum-based chemotherapy drugs; had worked in occupational settings where exposure to platinum may have occurred;
or had dental amalgams that contained platinum.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The average platinum concentration in samples from women exposed to silicone breast implants
was found to be the following when compared to samples from individuals with no known platinum exposure:
14 times higher
3 times higher
100 times higher
60 - 1700 times higher
Our results indicate that platinum migrates from silicone implants via the lymphatic and blood
systems into the urine, sweat, and breast milk, with deposits and accumulation in hair and nails. Platinum, including
ionized forms of platinum, may persist years after the silicone gel breast implants have been removed. Like lead, platinum
may accumulate in bone tissue.
The women did not have other platinum exposures that could explain the results.
All silicone envelopes used in silicone, saline, and in testicular implants catalyzed with
ionized platinum would be expected to degrade and depolymerize as they age.
Silicone gel breast implants are the most likely source of the elevated total platinum levels,
and the reactive forms of platinum in women exposed to these devices.
Chemically Associated Neurological Disorders (CANDO)
P.O. Box 682633
Houston, Texas 77268-2633